Patient Confidentiality

To ensure patient confidentiality, it is essential that no information that could identify a specific patient is included in either the case description or images. It is a requirement of the Terms of Use that all patient cases uploaded to any platform be de-identified to prevent the reasonable identification of the patient. This includes radiographic images and case notes. It is crucial that this requirement is strictly followed to protect the privacy of patients.

As is a collaborative platform, we rely on contributors to follow our terms of use and refrain from uploading identifying information. However, if you come across a case that includes personal information or feel that you or someone else is reasonably identifiable in a case, please contact us immediately at We will take swift action to remove the content from the platform. It is important for us to maintain the confidentiality of all patients and protect their privacy.

To ensure patient confidentiality, it is important that nothing in your images or description could lead to the identification of an individual. This includes embedded data on your images, which can often be overlooked. To prevent the inclusion of identifying information, it is best to avoid placing any text on your images. Based on HIPAA guidelines, the following types of information should not appear on any patient cases uploaded to any platform:

  • Name
  • Initials
  • Date of birth
  • Address, including full or partial postal code
  • Telephone or fax numbers or contact information
  • E-mail addresses
  • Unique identifying numbers (e.g. UR, MRN, HID, etc.)
  • Vehicle identifiers
  • Medical device identifiers (e.g serial numbers)
  • Web or internet protocol addresses containing any link to the patient
  • Biometric data
  • Facial photograph or comparable image
  • Names of relatives
  • Date of the study

It is important to adhere to these guidelines to protect the privacy of patients and maintain confidentiality. In addition to avoiding the inclusion of identifying information in images and descriptions, it is important to also consider whether a case could be uniquely identifiable by its images alone. If this is the case, the case should not be uploaded. This includes cases that have received media attention or exhibit rare symptoms. It is also important to ensure that the accompanying textual information is free of identifying information and any unnecessary information that could potentially lead to the identification of a patient. It is crucial to protect the confidentiality of all patients and maintain their privacy.

Please note that our privacy policy does not supersede the individual policies of institutions. Users should ensure that they are using images in accordance with their local guidelines.

Protecting patient privacy is of the utmost importance to us. Any failure to adhere to our privacy policy and terms of use is considered a breach. If we become aware of a case that contains patient information or that could reasonably identify a person, it will be immediately removed from the platform and we may take disciplinary action against the user as permitted by the terms of use. Please be sure to follow these guidelines to ensure the confidentiality of all patients.